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Even late torture was judicially applied [ 20] extract evidence, for that year a Jacobite gentleman was questioned the boots.
The repetition of torture was forbidden, indeed, but the infamous Inquisitor, James Sprenger, imagined a subtle distinction which each fresh application was a continuation and not a repetition the first; one sorceress Germany suffered this continuation less than fifty-sixtimes.
Nor was the punishment death fire for witchcraft sorcery employed any extent Ireland. How the two witches were put death are not told, but probably was hanging.
Subsequent the passing the Act the method execution would[ 21] have been that for felony. Between and more than six thousand sorcerers were burnt the diocese Strasburg, while, can credit the figures Bartholomew Spina, Lombardy a thousand sorcerers a year were put death for the space twenty-five years3] The total number persons executed various ways for this crime has, according 9.
This was especially true the earlier stages the movement when sorcery rather than witchcraft was the crime committed. For there a general distinction between the two 22] though many instances they are confounded.
Sorcery was, speak, more aristocratic pursuit; the sorcerer was the master the Devil until his allotted time expired and compelled him his bidding: the witch generally belonged the lower classes, embodied her art many practices which lay the borderland between good and evil, and was rather the slave Satan, who almost invariably proved a most faithless and unreliable employer.
For illustration from this country the broad distinction between the two the reader may compare Dame Alice Kyteler with Florence Newton.
Anybody might become a victim the witch epidemic; noblemen, scholars, monks, nuns, titled ladies, bishops, clergy—none were immune from accusation and condemnation.
Nay, even a saint once fell under suspicion; S. The books that have been consulted and which have contained information relative Ireland are, unfortunately, all too numerous, while those that have proved use are fully referred the text footnotes the present volume.
DAME ALICE KYTELER, THE SORCERESS KILKENNY The history the proceedings against Dame Alice Kyteler and her confederates account their dealings unhallowed arts found a.
Dame Alice Kyteler such apparently being her maiden name the facile princeps of Irish witches, was a member a good Anglo-Norman family that had been settled[ 26] in the city Kilkenny for many years.
The coffin-shaped tombstone one her ancestors, Jose Keteller, who died preserved S. The lady question must have been far removed from the popular conception a witch old woman striking ugliness, else her powers attraction were very remarkable, for she had succeeded leading four husbands the altar.
She had been married, first, William Outlawe Kilkenny, banker; secondly, Adam Blund Callan; thirdly, Richard Valle—all whom she was supposed have got rid poison; and fourthly, Sir John Poer, whom was said she deprived his natural senses philtres and incantations.
The Bishop Ossory this period was Richard Ledrede, a Franciscan friar, and Englishman birth. The following charges were laid against them.
They had denied the faith Christ absolutely for a year a month, according the object they desired gain through sorcery was greater less importance.
During all that period they believed none the doctrines the Church; they did not adore the Body Christ, nor enter a sacred building hear mass, nor make use consecrated bread holy water.
They offered sacrifice demons living animals, which they dismembered, and then distributed cross-roads a certain evil spirit low rank, named the Son Art.
They sought their sorcery advice and responses from demons. They also stated that her present husband, Sir John Poer, had been reduced such a condition sorcery and the use powders that had[ 29] become terribly emaciated, his nails had dropped off, and there was hair left his body.
The said dame had a certain demon, incubus, named Son Art, Robin son Art, who had carnal knowledge her, and from whom she admitted that she had received all her wealth.
The Chancellor reply wrote the Bishop stating that a warrant for arrest could not obtained until a public process excommunication had been force for forty days, while Sir Arnold also wrote requesting him withdraw the case, else ignore.
Foiled this, cited her son William for heresy. Upon this Sir Arnold came with William the Priory Kells, where Ledrede was holding a visitation, and besought him not proceed further the matter.
Finding entreaty useless had recourse threats, which speedily put into execution. This naturally caused tremendous excitement the The place became ipso factosubject interdict; the Bishop desired the Sacrament, and was brought him solemn procession the Dean and Chapter.
Seeing this, William Outlawe nervously informed Sir Arnold , who thereupon decided keep the Bishop closer restraint, but subsequently changed his mind, and allowed him have companions with him day and night, and also granted free admission all his friends and servants.
After Ledrede had been detained prison for seventeen days, and Sir Arnold having thereby attained his end, viz.
The latter refused sneak out like a released felon, but assumed his pontificals, and, accompanied all the clergy and a throng people, made his way solemnly S.
With a pertinacity cannot but admire again cited William Outlawe public proclamation appear before him, but before the day arrived the Bishop[ 33] was himself cited answer Dublin for having placed interdict his diocese.
Though have lost sight for a while[ 34] of Dame Alice, yet she seems have been eagerly watching the trend events, for now find her having the Bishop summoned Dublin answer for having excommunicated her, uncited, unadmonished, and unconvicted the crime sorcery.
This was granted, and the presence the council and the assembled prelates they mutually gave each other the kiss peace.
Affairs having come such a satisfactory conclusion the Bishop had leisure turn his attention the business that had unavoidably been laid aside for some little time.
But the bird escaped again out the hand the fowler. Dame Alice fled a second time, this occasion[ 35] from Dublin, where she had been living, and said Several her confederates were subsequently arrested, some them being apparently a very humble condition life, and were committed prison.
Their names were: Robert Bristol, a clerk, John Galrussyn, Ellen Galrussyn, Syssok Galrussyn, William Payn Boly, Petronilla Meath, her daughter Sarah5] Alice the wife Henry Faber, Annota Lange, and Eva Brownestown.
When the Bishop arrived Kilkenny from Dublin went direct the prison, and interviewed the unfortunates mentioned above. They all immediately confessed the charges laid against them, and even went the length admitting other crimes which mention had been made; but, according them, Dame Alice was the mother and mistress them all.
Upon this the Bishop wrote letters the 6 June the Chancellor, and the Treasurer, Walter Islep, requesting them order the Sheriff attach the bodies these people and put[ 36] them safe keeping.
But a warrant was refused, owing the fact that William Outlawe was a relation the one and a close friend the other; length the Bishop obtained through the Justiciary, who also consented deal with the case when came Kilkenny.
Before his arrival the Bishop summoned William Outlawe answer S. The latter appeared before him, accompanied a band men armed the teeth; but way overawed this show force, Ledrede formally accused him heresy, favouring, receiving, and defending heretics, well usury, perjury, adultery, clericide, and excommunications— all thirty-four items were brought forward against him, and was permitted respond the arrival the Justiciary.
Further trouble arose with William Outlawe, who was backed the Chancellor and Treasurer, but the Bishop finally succeeded beating him, and compelled him submit his bended knees.
One them, Petronilla Meath, was made the scapegoat for her mistress. The Bishop had her flogged six times, and under the repeated application this form torture she made the required confession magical practices.
She admitted the denial her faith and the sacrificing Robert, son Art, and She declared that although she herself was mistress the Black Art, yet she was nothing comparison with the Dame from whom she had learnt all her knowledge, and that there was one the world more skilful than she.
This was the first instance the punishment death fire being inflicted Ireland for heresy. And thus, the authority Holy Mother Church, and the special grace God, that most foul brood was scattered and destroyed Sir Arnold Poer, who had taken such a prominent part the affair, was next attacked.
The Bishop accused him heresy, had him excommunicated, and committed prisoner Dublin Castle. His innocency was believed most people 41] and Roger Outlawe, Prior Kilmainham, who also figures our story, and who was appointed Justiciary Ireland , showed him some kindness, and treated him with humanity.
This enraged the Bishop that actually accused the Justiciary heresy. A select committee clerics vindicated the orthodoxy the latter, upon which prepared a sumptuous banquet for his defenders.
Poer died prison the same year, , before the matter was finally settled, and was under ban excommunication his body lay unburied for a long period.
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Kein Zweifel: Das Tageblatt ist 'European Newspaper of the Year' und kann diese Auszeichnung nun ein Jahr lang im Zeitungskopf führen. Die Zeitung hat sich seitdem fortwährend erneuert, um den Lesegewohnheiten und der neuen Rolle der gedruckten Zeitung Hans Peter Janisch, gerecht zu werden.
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Salzburger Nachrichten A Lebensmittel Zeitung D Le Temps CH Stuttgarter Zeitung D Main-Echo D Sunnuntaisuomalainen FIN Het Parool NL Märkische Allgemeine D Turun Sanomat FIN Neue Osnabrücker Zeitung D The Sunday Telegraph GB Main Post D Neue Osnabrücker Zeitung D Rheinische Post D Trouw NL Südwest-Presse D Politiken DK 2.
Sectional Front Pages Ruhr Nachrichten D Süddeutsche Zeitung D Stuttgarter Zeitung D Nationwide Newspaper Salzburger Nachrichten A Regional Newspaper Supplements Sunnuntaisuomalainen FIN Trouw NL Berlingske DK St.
Galler Tagblatt CH De Limburger NL Weekend Supplements The Sunday Telegraph GB Welt am Sonntag komp. Photography de Volkskrant NL Stuttgarter Nachrichten Handelsblatt D Die Welt D 7.
Visual Storytelling 4. Photographic Series Die Welt D Stuttgarter Zeitung D Ludwigsburger Kreiszeitung D Aamulehti FIN De Volkskrant NL Het Parool NL Stuttgarter Zeitung D Weekly Newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung D Bergens Tidende N Hamburger Abendblatt D Kurier A Südkurier D Morgenbladet N Bild am Sonntag D Neue Zürcher Zeitung CH Lebensmittel Zeitung D WAZ D Supplements Die Welt D NZZ am Sonntag CH Politiken DK WAZ, Westfalenpost 1.
Cover- and Coverstory Cover- and Coverstory for special occasions Expresso P 4. Sectional Front Pages Adresseavisen N naszemiasto.
Cut Documento GR 1. Cover- and Coverstory der Freitag D Welt am Sonntag D Stuttgarter Zeitung D Die Welt D Horizont D Regional Newspaper Der Tagesspiegel D Süddeutsche Zeitung D Die Zeit D NZZ am Sonntag CH Aamulehti FIN Die Welt D Alternative Storytelling Welt am Sonntag D Fränkischer Tag D Handelszeitung CH de Volkskrant NL ABC ES 4.
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News Pages OÖNachrichten A Lebensmittel Zeitung D Expresso P Die Zeit D SonntagsZeitung CH 3. News Pages in General Pforzheimer Zeitung D Mindener Tageblatt D Hamburger Abendblatt D Express D Trouw NL Luzerner Zeitung CH Rheinische Post D Welt am Sonntag D HB UA Luzerner Zeitung D Stuttgarter Zeitung D Horizont D Märkische Allgemeine D 4.
Atmosphere 3. Refugees Infographics Dolomiten I 3. Terror, War Die Welt Kompakt D Bild D The Sunday Times GB ARA ES Etelä-Soumen Sanomat FIN Ara ES DVZ D Dagbladet N The Daily Telegraph GB Augsburger Allgemeine D Fanaposten N Berliner Morgenpost D Estado de Minas BR Darmstädter Echo D WDA Innsbruck A De Tijd B Kvinnheringen N Die Welt D Kurier A Develoy St.
Special Pages Ethnos GR Schweiz am Wochenende CH Main Post D Le Temps CH Aachener Zeitung D Expresso P Svenska Dagbladet S Tages-Anzeiger CH 1.
Cover- and Coverstory Nordsee-Zeitung D Bergens Tidende N Het Parool NL Trouw NL Weekly Newspaper O Globo BR Bieler Tagblatt CH NZZ am Sonntag CH 4.
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Alvin Sold geht in seinem Editorial auf die aktuelle Stimmung vor den Kommunalwahlen in Luxemburg ein. Er wirft zudem die Frage auf, welche Rolle das neue Kräfteverhältnis spielen könnte.
Überwachung überprüfen In Sachen Datenschutz soll in Zukunft mehr kontrolliert werden. Dafür entfallen Genehmigungsprozeduren. Ein Paradigmenwechsel auch für die DatenS.
Am dritten Tag der Team-Europameisterschaft im Tischtennis haben die FLTT-Damen gegen Kroatien gewonnen und spielen heute gegen Frankreich um die Plätze Doch ist die Erfolgsgeschichte des umweltschonenden.
Seit dem Dieselskandal scheint der Weg zum Erfolg der Elektroautos zwangsweise geebnet. Der Klimawandel wirft seine Schatten voraus,. Brüsseler Transparenzoffensive In seiner Rede zur Lage der Europäischen Union kündigte EUKommissionspräsident JeanClaude Juncker an, die europäische Handelsstrategie weiter zu stärken.
Das Lithium- und Kobalt-Problem Zur Herstellung einer Standard-Lithium-Ionen-Batterie für Elektroautos werden seltene Erden und Metalle benötigt.
Vor allem ohne Lithium und Kobalt wäre es schnell aus mit dem Traum der E-Fahrzeuge. Unbedenklich ist ihre Förderung aber nicht. Lithium sorgt schon jetzt in Chile und Argentinien für gravierende Umweltprobleme.
Dadurch sinken der Grundwasserspiegel ebenso wie die Wasserspiegel gefährlich ab. Die Förderung von Kobalt ist nicht minder umstritten: Ein Bericht von Amnesty International enthüllte, dass im Hauptförder Quelle: indexmundi.
Während einige Abnehmer nun Druck auf die Förderungsfirmen machen möchten, kommentierten Unternehmen wie Tesla und BMW den Bericht bisher nicht.
Ein Quelle: worldatlas. Erfreulich ist, Das bedeutet, dass nach Einschätzung der Behörden ein Anschlag unmittelbar bevorstehen könnte. Am Morgen waren bei der Explosion eines selbstgebauten.
Sprengsatzes in der Londoner U-Bahn mindestens 29 Menschen verletzt worden, die Dschihadistenmiliz Islamischer Staat IS beanspruchte den Anschlag für sich.
Der Sprengsatz detonierte im morgendlichen Berufsverkehr in einem U-BahnWaggon an der Station Parsons Green im Westen Londons. Insgesamt wurden bei den Terrorakten 35 Menschen getötet.
By means of design and quantity of reporting on a single topic competitors can be put aside. They create their own topics as a means to distinguish themselves from other newspapers.
Einrichtung wie dem Gemeindegebäude oder dem Bahnhof sind. Liegt die Gemeinde aber in einem weniger bewohnten Gebiet, sind die Ortschaften manchmal weit auseinander gelegen.
Die erste öffentliche Ladestation könnte von daher mehrere Kilometer entfernt sein. Zusätzlich zu den Ladepollern, ob privat, von Unternehmen bereitgestellt oder öffentlich, muss auch das Stromnetz auf die E-Autos vorbereitet sein.
Alle Chargy-Ladepoller sollen, wie bisher auch, mit erneuerbarer Energie funktionieren. Sinn ergibt das E-Auto also nur, wenn auch eine Energiewende konsequent durchgesetzt wird.
Kilometer Einsatzradius verliert eine Elektrobatterie, wenn sie im Winter der Kälte ausgesetzt ist. Zunächst bleibt abzuwarten, ob die Preise für die elektrischen Flitzer, wie von vielen Verfechtern vorhergesagt, sinken werden.
Das wiederum ist eng daran gekoppelt, ob sich bessere und günstigere Förderungsmethoden für die nötigen Rohstoffe zur Batterieproduktion finden werden oder ob andere Batterien, wie beispielsweise NickelZink-Akkus, weiterentwickelt werden.
Aber auch bei diesen neuen Batterie müs-. Park-and-Ride Plätzen aufgestellt werden. Sinn dieser Parkplätze ist es bekanntlich, das Auto dort während der gesamten Arbeitszeit abzustellen.
Es könnten hier also innerhalb von 24 Stunden nur maximal 2. Nutzten von den angestrebten Weitere Ladepoller sollen in den Gemeinden aufgestellt werden.
Über die genaue Platzierung entscheiden die jeweiligen Gemeindeverantwortlichen, doch zeigen die bisherigen Plätze, dass sie meist in der Nähe einer öffentlichen.
Strittig könnte der Erfolg der E-Autos auch von anderen, alternativen Antriebstechniken gemacht werden. Denn neben dem Benzin- und Dieselmotor wird auch der Brennstoffzellenmotor weiterentwickelt, der mit Wasserstoff oder Methanol betrieben wird.
Bisher ist hier besonders die teure Herstellung von Wasserstoff ein Problem. Auch eine luxemburgische Firma könnte in das Wettrennen um den umweltfreund-.
Motor Development International arbeitet nämlich schon seit Jahren gemeinsam mit dem indischen Autohersteller Tata Motors am Luftdruckmotor.
Verkäufer mehrerer hiesiger Autohäuser sind sich aber einig, dass die nahe Zukunft erst mal den Hybrid- und Plugin- Fahrzeugen gehört.
Damit würden die CO2-Emissionen zwar nicht verschwinden, aber in einem ersten Schritt reduziert werden. Unabdingbar für den Erfolg ist die Infrastruktur.
Auch wenn das nationale Netz ausreichen sollte, so müssten doch auch die Ladestationen im gesamten Europa ähnlich gute Flexibilität garantieren wie momentan im Betrieb mit Verbrennungsmotoren.
Tesla hat bereits ein ausgeklügeltes System an Superchargern ausgearbeitet — allerdings nur für die eignen Autos. Nun ist es an den anderen, hier nachzuziehen.
Seit dem Diesel-Skandal ist die Automobilbranche unter Druck. Grund genug, den Luxemburger E-Auto-Markt unter die Lupe zu nehmen.
Ist das realistisch? Schon bei der Produktion entstehen Umweltschäden, denn die Förderung und Herstellung der Grundmaterialien von Autos verursachen CO2-Emissionen.
Das liegt zunächst daran, dass für die Batterie seltene Metalle gefördert werden müssen. Zusätzlich müssen die Autohersteller das Gewicht der Batterie kompensieren.
Dafür wird leichtes Aluminium verwendet, was wiederum zu mehr CO2-Emissionen führt. Rang Land Produktion in Tonnen Einer Studie des Fraunhofer1 Kongo Man müsste also, würde 7 Sambia 4.
Da die meisten den Wa12 Marokko 1. Elektroautos am Ende nur eine schöne Mär? Vor der Anschaffung eines E-Autos sollte der Verbraucher sich zumindest auch die negativen Punkte vor Augen führen.
Denn von der Produk-. Wir haben den Film in den Kontext von Aronofskys Gesamtwerk gestellt und ihn jenseits der schockierenden S.
Auch die Infrastruktur wiegt beim E-Auto-Kauf schwer. Denn wenn die Reichweite durch fehlende öffentliche Ladestationen begrenzt bleibt, macht eine Anschaffung für viele keinen Sinn.
Also knapp öffentliche Ladeplätze für elektrische Pkw. Bis soll das Netz auf über Ladepoller ausgebaut werden. Würde das bis dahin von der Regierung angestrebte Ziel von Ob das rechnerisch aufgeht, ist zweifelhaft.
Denn von den Pollern sollen auf. Elektroautos sind deutlich teurer als vergleichbare Modelle mit Verbrennungsmotoren— das hat sich auch in den letzten Jahren noch nicht grundlegend verändert.
E-Autos unter Das schreckt Kunden ab — auch in Luxemburg. Bislang sind auch nur E-Flitzer in Luxemburg angemeldet, weit weg von dem gesetzten Ziel von Sogar wenn man alle andern Vehikel mitzählt, kommt man auf nur knapp über 1.
Die Preise erklären sich durch die hohen Kosten bei der Produktion der Batterie und die Geldsummen, die in die Weiterentwicklung der Elektrofahrzeuge gesteckt werden.
Dafür sollte ein Kunde aber auf andere Kosten achten. Denn je nachdem, für welches Fahrzeug man sich entscheidet, mietet der Käufer die Autobatte-.
Pro Monat kommen dann zwischen 40 und Euro Mietzahlungen auf einen zu. Entscheidet man sich dazu, die Batterie gleich mit zu kaufen, wird das E-Auto gleich um einige tausend Euro teurer.
Sollte dann nach acht bis zehn Jahren die Elektrobatterie auszutauschen sein, muss diese neue Batterie ebenfalls gekauft werden.
Damit ist es aber noch nicht getan. Denn wenn man sein Auto nicht bis zu 15 Stunden an der normalen Steckdose laden möchte, muss der Käufer auch die Anschaffung einer Ladestation einkalkulieren.
Zunächst muss das logistisch funktionieren: Ohne eine eigene Garage oder privaten Stellplatz ist man mit seinem Latein schnell am Ende und muss auf eine öffentliche Ladestation in der Nähe hoffen.
Hat man allerdings die Möglichkeit, kostet die Ladestation zwischen und Euro zusätzlich der Installationskosten.
Bei Tesla schätzt der Verkäufer die Gesamtsumme auf etwa 1. Der Renault-Verkäufer verweist auf eine Kostenschätzung des jeweiligen Stromanbieters, bietet aber eine Beteiligung an den Anschaffungskosten an.
Auf der Enovos-Website liegen die Preise für eine eigene Ladestation bei 1. Er hält Heikler sind hingegen die Fragen, ob die Infrastruktur den Herausforderungen der E-Mobilität gewachsen ist und ob ein E-Auto trotz Umweltverschmutzung und eindeutiger Ausbeutung moralisch vertretbar ist.
Tageblatt: Bis sollten in Luxemburg Inwiefern ist das realistisch? Dies aus mehreren Gründen: Zunächst fördern wir als Staat die nötige Infrastruktur.
Alle öffentlichen Ladestationen funktionieren schon jetzt mit Prozent erneuerbarer Energie. Bis sollen Ladestationen im Land entstehen.
Sind das angesichts der angestrebten Viele Gemeinden bestellen mehr Ladestationen als eigentlich gefordert. Reicht die Kapazität unseres bisherigen Stromnetzes aus, um den künftigen Bedarf der E-Mobilität zu decken?
Wenn wir Elektromobilität fördern wollen, dann muss auch die intelligente Verteilung von Strom und ein Umdenken in Sachen Stromkonsum schnell umgesetzt werden.
Dennoch würde es nicht funktionieren, von heute auf morgen komplett auf E-Mobilität umzusteigen. Ich glaube auch nicht, dass wir jetzt sagen sollen, dass E-Mobilität die einzige Lösung ist.
In der Übergangszeit sind besonders Hybridtechniken sehr wichtig. In Zukunft wird es wohl eher eine Kombination geben von verschiedenen Antriebstechniken.
Bis sieht die Rifkin-Studie vor, dass nur noch Elektroautos für eine Neuzulassung infrage kommen. Wird das eintreffen? Das ist eine Richtlinie, aber ich bin gegen Verbote.
Das bringt uns nichts. Die Richtlinie, die man sich gibt, schafft Druck genug, beispielsweise auf den Automobilsektor. Rechnet man zu den öffentlichen Ladestationen noch die privaten hinzu, ergibt das besonders in städtischen, bzw.
Kommen dadurch eher ländliche Gegenden zu kurz? Dennoch würde es nicht funktionieren, von heute auf morgen komplett auf E-Mobilität umzusteigen Wir haben versucht, bei der Planung der Ladestationen eben dieses Szenario zu verhindern.
Aber wir müssen weiter beobachten, dass das Szenario sich auch nicht dementsprechend entwickelt. Dann müssen der Staat und die Gemeinden Verantwortung übernehmen und wenn es irgendwo Versorgungslöcher gibt, diese durch Investitionen stopfen.
Es darf natürlich nicht sein, dass der städtische Raum luxuriös ausgestattet ist, und der ländliche Teil vergessen wird.
Beim Kauf eines E-Autos fallen für den Einzelnen natürlich auch für die private Ladestation zusätzliche Kosten an. Kann man hier auf eine staatliche Hilfe zählen?
Momentan fördern wir ja nur den Kauf des Autos. Aber ich glaube, dass man sich überlegen sollte, auch die Anschaffung von Ladestationen zu fördern, um auch so die Entwicklung der EMobilität anzutreiben.
Man könnte sogar einen Schritt weiter gehen und bei Neubauten grundsätzlich E-Ladestationen einfordern. Im Gegensatz zu den öffentlichen Ladestationen ist es nicht garantiert, dass private Ladestationen zu Hause mit erneuerbarer Energie beliefert werden.
Kann man das. E-Auto in dem Fall als umweltfreundlich verteidigen? Wenn ein Elektroauto keinen grünen Strom nutzt, dann macht es keinen Sinn. Wir können natürlich unsere Unterstützungen an die Vorlage koppeln, dass nur erneuerbare Energie zum Tanken genutzt wird, aber wir können es nicht einfach jedem Käufer vorschreiben.
Wie stehen Sie dazu? Ein negativer Punkt ist sicherlich der Energieaufwand bei der Produktion der Batterien, ihre Lebensdauer sowie ihre spätere Entsorgung.
Es gibt dafür auch schon heute Lösungen. Es läuft darauf hinaus, dass die Batterien in Zukunft zu Prozent recycelbar sind oder in der Übergangsphase während einiger Zeit in anderen Bereichen als Energiespeicher genutzt werden können.
Die Forschung muss weitergetrieben werden, um die Effizienz der Batterien zu steigern und sie zu Prozent recyceln zu können.
Ziel ist es, dass irgendwann keine Rohstoffe mehr aus dem Boden gezogen werden müssen, um neue Batterien herzustellen. Zwei Rohstoffe zur Batterieherstellung stehen momentan besonders in der Kritik: Lithium verursacht in manchen Förderländern erhebliche Umweltschäden.
Amnesty International wiederum deckte auf, dass beim Kobalt-Abbau im Kongo teilweise Kinder eingesetzt werden.
Ist ein E-Auto also überhaupt moralisch vertretbar? Ist das Benzinauto denn vertretbar? Denn die Förderung von Erdöl findet unter genauso desaströsen Umständen statt.
Da haben wir uns die Fragen 40 Jahre lang nicht gestellt. Wir müssen generell die Nutzung von Ressourcen infrage stellen — ob bei den E-Autos, der Nahrung oder der Kleidung.
Das sind globale Gerechtigkeitsfragen, die berechtigterweise immer gestellt werden, selbstverständlich auch bei der Produktion von Batterien.
Ich unterstütze jede Nichtregierungsorganisation NGO , die sich dafür einsetzt, dass Lithium unter umweltfreundlichen und Kobalt unter menschenwürdigen Bedingungen abgebaut wird.
Aber letztendlich ist das kein Argument gegen das Elektroauto, sondern gegen eine Organisation der globalen Wirtschaft, die desaströs ausbeuterisch ist.
Luxemburg profitiert finanziell stark von den traditionellen Tankstellen. Diese Einnahmen würden aber bei einer Umstellung auf E-Mobilität wegfallen.
Wie geht man damit um? Wir hätten schon längst aus dieser Abhängigkeit heraus gemusst. Erstens gehen diese Einnahmen sowieso schon zurück.
Zweitens ist uns schon länger bewusst, dass diese Einnahmequelle nicht unendlich ist. Wir sind dabei, Alternativen aufzubauen, ob im ICT oder im Automobil-Zuliefererbereich.
According to it, he foretold the rebellion of in a sermon on Ezekiel iv. William Turner in his Compleat History of Remarkable Providences London, gives a premonition of approaching death that the Archbishop received.
A lady who was dead appeared to him in his sleep, and invited him to sup with her the next night. He accepted the invitation, and died the following afternoon, 21st March John Browne of Durley in Ireland was made by his neighbour, John Mallett of Enmore, trustee [Pg ] for his children in minority.
In Mr. Some of his people and friends were sitting by him, when to their horror they suddenly saw the locked chest begin to open, lock by lock, without the aid of any visible hand, until at length the lid stood upright.
The chest slowly locked itself in exactly the same manner as it had opened, and shortly after this Mr. Browne died. With the Restoration of King Charles II witchcraft did not cease; on the other hand it went on with unimpaired vigour, and several important cases were brought to trial in England.
In one instance, at least, it made its appearance in Ireland, this time far south, at Youghal. It is from the first of these sources that we have taken it, and reproduce it here verbatim, except that some redundant matter has been omitted, i.
Hayman in his Guide to Youghal attributes the whole affair to the credulity of the Puritan settlers, who were firm believers in such things.
In this he is correct no doubt, but it should be borne in mind by the reader that such a belief was not confined to the new-comers at Youghal, but was common property throughout England and Ireland.
The tale shows that there was a little covey of suspected witches in Youghal at that date, as well as some skilful amateur witch-finders Messrs.
Perry, Greatrakes, and Blackwall. For the benefit of the uninitiated we may briefly describe the actual process, which, as we shall see, the Mayor contemplated, [Pg ] but did not actually carry out.
She is then thrown into the water: if she sinks and drowns, by any chance! Being asked how long she had known her, she said for three or four years.
And being asked whether she perceived at these times what she vomited? She replied, she did; for then she was not in so great distraction as in other parts of her Fits she was.
And that before the first beginning of her Fits several and very many small stones would fall upon her as she went up and down, and would follow her from place to place, and from one Room to another, and would hit her on the head, shoulders, and arms, and fall to the ground and vanish away.
And that she and several others would see them both fall upon her and on the ground, but could never take [Pg ] them, save only some few which she and her Master caught in their hands.
And being asked how she knew that she was thus carried about and disposed of, seeing in her Fits she was [Pg ] in a violent distraction?
She answered, she never knew where she was, till they of the Family and the Neighbours with them, would be taking her out of the places whither she was so carried and removed.
And being asked the reason and wherefore she cried out so much against the said Florence Newton in her Fits?
She answered, because she saw her, and felt her torturing her. And lastly, that when the people of the Family, by advice of the Neighbours and consent of the Mayor, had sent for Florence Newton to come to the Defendant, she was always worse when she was brought to her, and her Fits more violent than at another time.
And that after the said Florence was committed at Youghal the Defendant was not troubled, but was very well till a little while after the said Florence was removed to Cork, and then the Defendant was as [Pg ] ill as ever before.
And then the Mayor of Youghal, one Mr. Aston towards the said Mary, as if she intended to strike at her if she could have reached her, and said, Now she is down.
Upon which the Maid fell suddenly down to the ground like a [Pg ] stone, and fell into a most violent Fit, that all the people that could come to lay hands on her could scarce hold her, she biting her own arms and shreeking out in a most hideous manner, to the amazement of all the Beholders.
And continuing so for about a quarter of an hour the said Florence Newton sitting by herself all that while pinching her own hands and arms, as was sworn by some that observed her , the Maid was ordered to be carried out of Court, and taken into a House.
Whereupon the Court having taken notice that the Maid said she had been very well when the said Florence was in Bolts, and ill again when out of them, till they were again put on her, demanded of the Jaylor if she were in Bolts or no, to which he said she was not, only manacled.
Upon which order was given to put on her Bolts, and upon putting them on she cried out that she was killed, she was undone, she was spoiled, why do you torment me [Pg ] thus?
And then came in a messenger from the Maid, and informed the Court the Maid was well. At which Florence immediately and cholerickly uttered these words, She is not well yet!
And being demanded, how she knew this, she denied she said so, though many in Court heard her say the words, and she said, if she did, she knew not what she said, being old and disquieted, and distracted with her sufferings.
But the Maid being reasonably well come to herself, was, before the Court knew anything of it, sent out of Town to Youghall, and so was no further examined.
And Thomas Harrison swore that he had observed the said Florence peep at her, and use that motion with her hands, and saw [Pg ] the Maid fall immediately upon that motion, and heard the words, Now she is down , uttered.
Whereupon she said she could say it, and had often said it, and the Court being desired by her to hear her say it, gave her leave; and four times together after these words, Give us this day our daily bread , she continually said, As we forgive them , leaving out altogether the words, And forgive us our trespasses , upon which the Court appointed one near her to teach her the words she left out.
And being often pressed to utter the words as they were repeated to her, she did not. And being asked the reason, she said she was old and had a bad memory; and being asked how her memory served her so well for other [Pg ] parts of the Prayer, and only failed her for that, she said she knew not, neither could she help it.
That sometimes the Maid would be reading in a Bible, and on a sudden he hath seen the Bible struck out of her Hand into the middle of the Room, and she immediately cast into a violent Fit.
And then she said, that there were others, as Goody Halfpenny and Goody Dod, in Town, that could do these things as well as she, and that it might be one of these that had done the Maid wrong.
And there was a very great noise, as if some body with Bolts and Chains had been running up and down the Room, and they asked her what it was she spoke to, and what it was that made the noise; and she said she saw nothing, neither did she speak, and if she did, it was she knew not what.
Greatrix, and Mr. Blackwall went to the Maid, and Mr. Greatrix and he had read of a way to [Pg ] discover a Witch, which he would practise.
And so they sent for the Witch, and set her on a Stool, and a Shoemaker with a strong Awl endeavoured to stick it into the Stool, but could not till the third time.
And then they bade her come off the Stool, but she said she was very weary and could not stir. Then two of them pulled her off, and the Man went to pull out his Awl, and it dropped into his hand with half an Inch broke off the blade of it, and they all looked to have found where it had been stuck, but could find no place where any entry had been made by it.
Then Mr. And when she came to herself he asked her what had troubled her; and she said [Pg ] Gammer Newton. And the Deponent saith, Why, she was not there.
Yes , said she, I saw her by my bedside. The Deponent then asked her the original of all, which she related from the time of her begging the Beef, and after kissing, and so to that time.
That then they caused the Maid to be got up, and sent for Florence Newton, but she refused to come, pretending she was sick, though it indeed appeared she was well.
Then the Mayor of Youghall came in, and spoke with the Maid, and then sent again and caused Florence Newton to be brought in, and immediately the Maid fell into her Fit far more violent, and three times as long as at any other time, and all the time the Witch was in the Chamber the Maid cried out continually of her being hurt here and there, but never named the Witch: but as soon as she was removed, then she cried out against her by the name of Gammer Newton, and this for several times.
And still when the Witch was out of the Chamber the Maid would desire to go to Prayers, and he found good affections of her in time of Prayer, but when the Witch was brought in again, [Pg ] though never so privately, although she could not possibly, as the Deponent conceives, see her, she would be immediately senseless, and like to be strangled, and so would continue till the Witch was taken out, and then though never so privately carried away she would come again to her senses.
That afterwards Mr. Greatrix, Mr. Then he likewise examined the other two Women, but they utterly denied it, and were content to abide any trial; whereupon he caused Dod, Halfpenny, and Newton to be carried to the Maid; and [Pg ] he told her that these two Women, or one of them, were said by Gammer Newton to have done her hurt, but she said, No, no, they are honest Women, but it is Gammer Newton that hurts me, and I believe she is not far off.
But April following she bewitched one David Jones to death by kissing his hand through the Grate of the Prison, for which she was indicted at Cork Assizes, and the evidence is as follows:.
To which she answered she knew not; whereupon he replied, I and Frank Beseley have been standing Centinel over the Witch all night.
To which the said Elenor said, Why, what hurt is that? To which she answered, The Lord forbid! Then David Jones began to teach her, but she could not or would not say it, though often taught it.
Whereupon he went to visit him, [and was told by him that the Hag] had him by the Hand, and was pulling off his Arm. And he said, Do you not see the old hag How she pulls me?
About fourteen days languishing he died. It would seem that the witch was indicted upon two separate charges, viz. The case must have created considerable commotion in Youghal, and was considered so important that the Attorney-General went down to prosecute, but unfortunately there is no record of the verdict.
If found guilty and we can have little doubt but that she was , she would have been sentenced to death in pursuance of the Elizabethan Statute, section 1.
Many of the actors in the affair were persons of local prominence, and can be identified. He was born in , and died in He joined the Parliamentary Army, and when it was disbanded in , became a country magistrate.
At the Restoration he was deprived of his offices, and then gave himself up to a life of [Pg ] contemplation.
He kept the matter quiet for some time, but at last communicated it to his wife, who jokingly bade him try his power on a boy in the neighbourhood.
Accordingly he laid his hands on the affected parts with prayer, and within a month the boy was healed. Gradually his fame spread, until patients came to him from various parts of England as well as Ireland.
In he received an invitation from Lord Conway to come to Ragley to cure his wife of perpetual headaches.
He stayed at Ragley about three weeks, and while there he entertained his hosts with the story of Florence Newton and her doings; although he did not succeed in curing Lady Conway, yet many persons in the neighbourhood benefited by his treatment.
He took no fees, and rejected cases which were manifestly incurable. In modern times the [Pg ] cures have been reasonably attributed to animal magnetism.
He was buried beside his father at Affane, co. Richard Myres was Bailiff of Youghal in , and Mayor in and He was sworn in a freeman at [Pg ] large in , and appears to have been presented by the Grand Jury in as a religious vagrant.
Furthermore, it seems possible to recover the name of the Judge who tried the case at the Cork Assizes. Aston writ in the Margin, and then again W.
Aston at the end of all, who in all likelihood must be some publick Notary or Record-Keeper. On 3rd November he was appointed senior puisne Judge of the Chief Place, and died in Williams and the haunted house in Dublin—Apparitions seen in the air in co.
Tipperary—A clergyman and his wife bewitched to death—Bewitching of Mr. Moor—The fairy-possessed butler—A ghost instigates a prosecution—Supposed witchcraft in co.
Cork—The Devil among the Quakers. From the earliest times the Devil has made his mark, historically and geographically, in Ireland; the nomenclature of many places indicates that they are his exclusive property, while the antiquarian cannot be sufficiently thankful to him for depositing the Rock of Cashel where he did.
But here we must deal with a later period of his activity. A quaint tale comes to us from co. Tipperary of a man bargaining with his Majesty for the price of his soul, in which as usual the Devil is worsted by [Pg ] a simple trick, and gets nothing for his trouble.
Near Shronell in that county are still to be seen the ruins of Damerville Court, formerly the residence of the Damer family, and from which locality they took the title of Barons Milton of Shronell.
The first of the family to settle in Ireland, Joseph Damer, had been formerly in the service of the Parliament, but not deeming it safe to remain in England after the Restoration, came over to this country and, taking advantage of the cheapness of land at that time, purchased large estates.
It was evidently of this member of the family that the following tale is told. His Satanic Majesty greedily accepted the offer, and on the day appointed for the ratification of the bargain arrived with a sufficiency of bullion from the Bank of Styx—or whatever may be the name of the establishment below!
He was ushered into a room, in the middle of which stood the empty top-boot; into [Pg ] this he poured the gold, but to his surprise it remained as empty as before.
He hastened away for more gold, with the same result. Repeated journeys to and fro for fresh supplies still left the boot as empty as when he began, until at length in sheer disgust he took his final departure, leaving Damer in possession of the gold, and as well for a few brief years, at all events of that spiritual commodity he had valued at so little.
In process of time the secret leaked out. The wily Damer had taken the sole off the boot, and had then securely fastened the latter over a hole in the floor.
In the storey underneath was a series of large, empty cellars, in which he had stationed men armed with shovels, who were under instructions to remove each succeeding shower of gold, and so make room for more.
Another story  comes from Ballinagarde in co. Once upon a time Mr. Croker of Ballinagarde was out [Pg ] hunting, but as the country was very difficult few were able to keep up with the hounds.
The chase lasted all day, and late in the evening Croker and a handsome dark stranger, mounted on a magnificent black horse, were alone at the death.
The stranger was shown to a bedroom, and as the servant was pulling off his boots he saw that he had a cloven hoof. In the morning he acquainted his master with the fact, and both went to see the stranger.
A most remarkable instance of legal proceedings being instituted at the instigation [Pg ] of a ghost comes from the co.
Down in the year Presently there appeared a third at his elbow, apparently clad in a long white coat, having the appearance of one James Haddock, an inhabitant of Malone who had died about five years previously.
Taverner asked him why he spoke with him; he told him, because he was a man [Pg ] of more resolution than other men, and requested him to ride along with him in order that he might acquaint him with the business he desired him to perform.
Taverner refused, and, as they were at a cross-road, went his own way. The following night the ghost appeared again to him as he sat by the fire, and thereupon declared to him the reason for its appearance, and the errand upon which it wished to send him.
It bade him go to Eleanor Walsh, its widow, who was now married to one Davis, and say to her that it was the will of her late husband that their son David should be righted in the matter of a lease which the father had bequeathed to him, but of which the step-father had unjustly deprived him.
Taverner refused to do so, partly because [Pg ] he did not desire to gain the ill-will of his neighbours, and partly because he feared being taken for one demented; but the ghost so thoroughly frightened him by appearing to him every night for a month, that in the end he promised to fulfil its wishes.
He went to Malone, found a woman named Eleanor Walsh, who proved to be the wrong person, but who told him she had a namesake living hard by, upon which Taverner took no further trouble in the matter, and returned without delivering his message.
The same night he was awakened by something pressing upon him, and saw again the ghost of Haddock in a white coat, which asked him if he had delivered the message, to which Taverner mendaciously replied that he had been to Malone and had seen Eleanor Walsh.
Scoti Magaximtp vol, xviii, , for Feb, By Gilbert Lainy Meason, Esq. This most singular work, with a copy of which we have been favoured, furnishes us with a complete and very instructive history of the mining schemes which agitated the whole of Scotland in the l6th and 17th cen- turies.
The chief object of mining speculation in Scotland was the search after gold. That gold existed, and that it even now exists, diffused through certain mountains, particularly in the south of Scotland, there can be no possible doubt.
Its diffusion is, however, in such very sparing quantity, as to render it questionable if it ever has been detected in sitUy that is, actually embedded in its solid matrix.
The rock in which it is contained has, like all other rocks, been for ages subject to gradual disintegration, and it is from the result of this disintegration, namely, alluvial deposits, that grains of gold have been collected.
The native gold of Scotland has thus been indebted for its development to a process which has occu- pied a duration of time that cannot be estimated; and as it is probable that the investigation of the contents of this alluvium has been long since completed, and, consequently, the supply of Scottish gold exhausted, we must wait for a revolution of many more thousand years before the bed will be again sufficiently rich with gold once more to tempt the avarice of mankind.
Edin- burgli, VoL TiL p. From this work we shall make a few extracts. Atkinson's speculations, that the gold found in these places was the result of the general deluge, would accord with the views of many geolo- gists of the present day.
We shall quote what he says on the subject, particularly as it is introductory to a very interesting description of the mode in which the Scottish gold was formerly collected.
And thyther even our Scott's gold, which is now found in sterues, or in graines, and peices, did discend, or was washed downe.
And the most strangest of all is this : there is found naturall gold, linked fast IN SCOTLAND. And alsoe all these are called perfect compacted gold, made in the beginning of the worlde, and engendreth with these stones aforesaid amongst rocks and craighs, without the helpe of sonn, moone, or starrs.
James IV. In his reign the gold mines of Crawford Moor were said to have been first discovered. These mines were worked under the inspection of Sir James Pettigrew, who employed some Englishmen and Dutchmen to conduct the refining and melting department.
In the year a company of Germans obtained a grant from James V. In this reign three hundred men are said to have been employed for several summers in washing gold, of which they are reported to have obtained L.
Gold was also said to have been' got in the Pentland Hills, in Langham Water, in Megget Water, and other places. In the early part of the reign of James VI.
Nicholas Hilliard, jeweller to Queen Elizabeth, was also a mining adventurer of this reign. And then Cornelius went to viewe the said moun- taines in Clidesdale and Nydesdale; upon which mountaines he gott a small taste of small gold.
This was a whettstone to sharpen his knife upon ; and this naturall gold tasted so sweete as the honny or honny-combe in his mouth.
And then he consulted with his freinds atEdenborough; and by his perswasions provoked them to adventure with him, shewing them first the naturall gold, which he called the temptable gold, or alluring gold.
It was in stemes, and some like unto birds' eyes and eggs: he compared it unto a woman's eye, which intiseth her joyes into hir bosome.
And Cornelius so earnestly persuaded his late frequented friends in Scot- land, that he possessed them to adventure also with him.
Mr Robert Ballentine, then secretary, had ten partes. Abraham Peterson, a Dutchman of Edinborough, had ten partes. James Rede, a burgeons of Edinborough, had five partes.
And Cornelius reserved to himself, and his London freinds which adventured with him, alsoe ten partes. Much gold was then bought from the poor workmen for twenty shillings the ounce weight.
He is said by Atkinson to have brought with him certain artsmen from Eng- land, and others of his own countrymen, into Scotland, which were at London.
His success is thus noticed: — " At Winlocke-head he gott a IN SCOTLAND. With this natural! But he said unto the said kinge, that he thought it did engender and increase within the earth, and that he observed it so to do by the influ- ence of the heavens.
And he said that it increased, and grew more and more, but neither by the power of the sun, moone, nor starres, but by the omnipotent power of God, as he thought.
But it was not, nor is not, pure fine gold, without any allay, as was Opheire gold; but,' said he, M am certain that all this gold, viz.
But he swore all his workmen to keepe it secrett, and never to disclose the same unto the King of Scotland, nor his counsell : for so he had promised to do, at his departure from the Queene of Eng- land, if he found it.
The king was due to Foulis L. Sir Bevis Bulmer is another mining hero of this period, who, visiting Scotland under Queen Elizabeth's patronage, is said to have been very successful.
He had a patent from her majesty to obtain gold, and pro- cured it on Mannock Moor, Winlock Water, Robbart Moor, Fryer Moor, Glangonner Water in Clydesdale, Crawford Moor, at Langclouch, where he found gold in a vein of other substances, which they discovered in searching the rock, after discovering two pieces of gold five and six ounces in weight.
In a piece of brown spar, weighing two pounds, described to be like sugar-candy , a piece of gold, one ounce weight, was said to have been extracted.
Mr Bulmer conceived his operations to be of such consequence that he erected a stamping mill. And he had there sometimes great gold, like Indian wheate, or pearle, and blacked-eyed like to beanes.
It is also added, that " amongst all the gold which Mr Bulmer had gotten in Scotland, besides that which he had given amongst his friends, this is to be noted, that he presented unto the late Queene Elizabeth so much natural gold as made a porringer of cleene gold.
The monarch's cupidity for gold was at first greatly excited, as appears from the following very remarkable conversation which took place between him and Bulmer: — " And shortly after Bulmer said that his majesty conceived so good an opinion of the mines, that he had them much in remembrance amongst others his great and mighty busynesses , esteeming them to be none of the smallest, pleas- ing unto God, nor the least that God had ordeyned for man within the earth.
It is thought fitting that Bulmer shall be a superiour pr chief thereof, becanse of his trust and skill, which was liked of by the lords of the counsell in Scotland.
Therefore, lett Bulmer procure, or move twenty-four gentle- men within England, of sufficient lands and livings, or any other his friends of Scotland, that shall be willing to be undertakers thereof, and to be adventurers towards the discovery thereof, and see that all these gentle- men be of such sufficiencie in lands, goods, or chattelis, as the worst be worth L.
And all such gentlemen to be moved to disburst L. Ten tons of the various metals were sent to England to be assayed, and were refined by Atkinson then a refiner in the Tower of London.
Bulmer soon gave up these works to pursue other mining speculations; for in the year Sir William Alexander, Thomas Foullis, and Paulo Pinto, a Portuguese, got a grant of the mine of Hilderston on pajring a tenth of the refined ore.
The vein, however, eventually failed. We may now advert to Atkinson himself, the author of the very curious account of the mines of Scotland. He had served an apprenticeship to a refiner in London of gold and silver, and was admitted a refiner in the Tower of London, A.
He afterwards was engaged in Devon- shire in refining silver from lead ore. He was taught his mining skill by B. He was afterwards tempted to leave his refining business, in order to explore gold mines in Scotland.
He probably, as Mr Laing Meason supposes, wanted money for the undertaking, and therefore wrote to his majesty ; and after comparing several of the king's acts to those erf David and Solomon, suggested the opening of the gold mines of Scot- IN SCOTLAND.
The Scots' gold mines were compared by him to God's treasure-house, and named Ophir gold for their goodness.
After this hypothesis he pays an extravagant, and almost profane compliment to King James, which he introduces by a sort of side-wind. These rivers are also devided, by God's omnipotent power, into foure heads.
The name of the second is called Short-clough water, upon Alwayne, within Clydsdale, upon Crawford Moore.
The name of the third river is Win- locke-head, or Wynlocke-water, upon Robbart Moore, within Nydsdale. The name of the fourth river is called Mannocke-water, upon Mannocke Moore, within Nydsdale.
He had already expended L. But it is now time to close this narrative. It appears that Sir Bevis Bulmer completely failed in his mining speculations, which was attributed to his having too many irons in the fire, and to his too great extravagance.
By such synister means he was impoverished, and followed other idle veniall vices to his dying day, that were not allowable of God nor man : and so once downe, aye downe ; and at last he died at Awstin- moore, in Ireland, in my debt L.
God forgive us all our sinnes! This curious history is now brought to a close. If these gold mines had been thought of in the year , it is not impossible but that their revival might have been contemplated, and that the minds of the mad projectors of that period might have been diverted from the golden mountains of Mexico to hunt for treasure on the cold and dreary plains of Crawford Moor.
The last project would have had this advan- tage, that it would have dispersed a few of the thousands which have been idly squandered away in distant speculations among our own coun- trymen.
IN SCOTLAND. The notes are highly valuable. They comprise, among various matters, a collection of early documents illustrative of the localities of other metals besides gold, said to have been found in Scotland.
We once were present at a juvenile exercise in the Latin tongue, where two of the disputants disagreed about the definition of a book, and where the president, in order to settle the question at once, with great solem- nity pronounced this axiom: — '' Liber est quicquid publici juris factum est.
Ergo: Mare liber est Porro Liber est quicquid publici juris factum est. Mulier vocata Mademoiselle Busk publici juris facta est quod prsesentium omnium testatur experientia.
Ergo: Mademoiselle Busk liber est. We need not add that the axiom was found somewhat too compre- hensive for. Written by Mr T.
ROMANCE OF HAVELOK THE DANE. We must speak more explicitly, as what we have to communicate may be a new piece of information to a great number of our readers.
Some years ago there was first in England, founded by the Earl Spencer and some other noblemen and gentlemen of high rank and great wealth, the above alluded to institution, under the name of the Roxburghe Chib, and the Earl Spencer has since been its president.
The professed purpose of this highly respectable body, is to print ancient unpublished MSS. It is, in some respects, fortunate that their choice has, in many cases, fallen on such MSS.
This would be particularly ungrateful in us, as we occasionally are fa- voured with a sight of what the rest of mankind never see.
Ought we not, O reader, " Sublimiyenre sidera vertice? We, however, understand from the conclusion of Mr MadderCs intro- duction, that Havelok is in a manner publishedy making thus an excep- tion from the general rule ; and we may say that we are glad of it, as Havelok will be highly interesting for many an inquisitive reader.
Mr Madden is entitled to a very high compliment for the care, assi- duity, and research, which he has bestowed on this work.
He has looked for information in most likely places, and collected it with taste and judg- ment. The introduction perhaps might have been a little abridged, but the glossary is excellent.
Mr Madden would, however, have found his work easier if he had been more intimately acquainted with some other ancient languages of nothern Europe besides old English; the Icelandic or, which is the same, the ancient Danish would in particular have been of great service for his purpose.
We have not either been able to discover that Mr Madden has noticed the peculiar dialect in which the romance is written.
Upon the whole, we have in Mr Madden's very learned intro- duction looked in vain for remarks on that subject, which, of all subjects connected with the ancient romance literature, surely is the most ivipor- tanty and on which this romance, in particular, seemed to claim investi- gation.
The subject to which we allude is language. It is not on account of their taste, their poetry, their metrical, or any other beauty, that the old English or Norman romances are particularly interesting to the scholar.
Only he who cannot read Homer, or Ariosto, or Chaucer, or Spencer, or the masterpieces in the ancient northern literature, will bother himself with the pedant's investigation, seeking for beauties where there are none, or few.
I have found it! I am sorry to find that so little is done for the romance literature of our country, sir. I assure you it is very valuable.
It would have been worthy of Mr Madden to use the opportunity afforded by this poem for researches respecting the old English tongue. That subject is one of comprehensive utility, and one which is sure amply to repay the noblest efforts.
The ancient dialects of nations do not desert us in our path of inves- tigation where all other historical data fail : it is from them that we often must ascertain the abodes and migrations of ancient nations, their state of civilization, and mutual relationship.
It is of no moment, we humbly conceive, to our patriotic feeling now- a-days, whether the Norman or English romances are oldest, as the poetical glory which is to be reaped from these sources is so exceeding petiU and has been entirely superseded by the works of genius in latter ages.
Yet, for the history of language, this same fact is of moment ; and the history of language itself is of importance for every purpose for which history itself is so ; nay, the history of language is the most important part of the history of man, as speech is the very agent by which all the most important changes and revolutions in the world could have been effected.
But we must stop here, not having room for what we have to say. Still it is written in old English and not in Saxon, for here the whole Saxon system of inflexions is entirely gone.
As a relic, however, of a language so closely related to Danish Saxon, it is valuable, as pro- bably it is the only thing in its kind, unless Lazamon's translation of Wace's " Le Brut" be written in the same dialect.
Not having seen Lazamon's work, we cannot form any positive opinion on the subject. We shall here give a few of the old Danish words we observed during our cursory reading.
Lax, a salmoD,. Lieyken, to play,. Gad, a sharp-pointed Ertchebishop, Drepen, to kill,. And many others, for there is certainly more than a sufficient number to establish our theory.
In the same manner, and upon the same principle, we were enabled to ascertain the meaning of a few words which Mr Madden has left without interpretation in his glossary.
Thertekene, v. Kaske, active, Icelandic kaskir. Teyte, allert, Icelandic tetir. Nay more, the very construction is the same as in the old Danish, for as we find here kaske and teyte, so kaskir ek teytir is very common in Icelandic verse.
Led, , seems to be nothing else but the lid of some pot, or goblet, or pan. Therlj 1 78, is a manifest slip, instead of yerL The cha- racters used in this, as well as other old MSS.
Denemak, v. Thos her tile, v. Worn so hire to gode thoucte; And that he shuld hire yeue The best man that micthe live, The beste, fayreste, the strangest ok; That dede he him sweren on the bok.
And than shulde he Engelond, Al bitechen into hire bond. As soon as his burial was over. Earl Goderich lost no time in taking steps for the establishment of his own dynasty ; and, for this purpose, he first received oaths of allegiance from all classes of people in England.
But when the princess Ooldebaraw began to grow up he enclosed her in a strong castle, allowing no person to have any communication with her.
Thinking his dynasty sufficiently well established, he went to the tower where he had enclosed the children, and nearly starved them to death, and, pretending to play with the princesses, he cut the throats of both of them; but when they were going.
Godard told him that the only guerdon he would get would be the gallows. There he lived several years, supporting himself and family by fishing, the prince, who now grew very stout and strong, assisting him in carrying the fish to market ; but as Grim found his means fast decreasing, he at length was obliged to send the prince adrift.
Almost naked, he came to the kitchen of Earl Goderich, where he was received as a helper, and soon distin- guished himself by his extraordinary strength ; when he had got on a new suit of clothes, which the kitchenmaid lent him, he was by everybody thought to be the most beautiful man that ever was seen.
When Gode- HAVELOK THE DANE. This feat being reported to Goderich, and that he withal was so eminently good tempered that he never did harm to any body, he thought that this person would fulfil all the requisites which Athelwold had stipu- lated for his daughter in her husband, and being low-born, as he thought, he would not be a person to claim the kingdom of England at his hands.
He then sent for the princess, and, much against her will, married her to Havelok. Being provided with nothing wherewithal to support himself and his wife, he instantly, after the wedding, went with her to Grimsby.
Old Grim was dead, but he found his children rather in a state of afflu- ence; they received him and the princess with open arms, offered to them all they had, and only wished to be servants to the princely couple.
Here Havelok had a dream or two, which Ooldehorow interpreted, and said that they foreboded that he was to become king of Denmark and England.
She moreover advised him instantly to set sail for Denmark. Thus far the first verses. The rest the imagination of the reader will easily supply.
All these are facts and events which every reader, who is at all acquainted with the romances from this age, will easily anticipate, as they have all a very similar conclusion, and almost in every case a fortunate one.
The poem is supposed to consist of 3, verses, but about 1 70 verses are wanting in the middle of it. The story of these cannot be supplied from the French romance, as the whole narrative is so very different.
To attempt to harmonize the incidents of this romance with any event in history, would be fruitless.
There is nothing in Danish history in the remotest degree connected with them, or resembling them. The undoubted historical fact to which Mr Madden alludes, that Hakon, the son of Harold 56 ROMANCE OF HAVELOK THE DANE.
Fairhair, King of Norway, was educated at the court of King Athelstane of England, bears no resemblance whatever to the romance of Havelok; nor are the circumstances in this fiction and that history at all similar.
Moreover, Denmark and Norway were at this period two distinct king- doms, and often at war between themselves; a fact which, in the thirteenth century, could not be unknown to any romance writer in England, as fre- quently Norwegians were the allies of the English when the Danes were their foes, and vice versa.