The Battle of Red Cliffs: The History and Legacy of the Decisive Battle Fought Near the Start of Ancient China's Three Kingdoms Period | Charles River Editors. Die Schlacht von Chibi, auch als Schlacht am Roten Felsen, genauer: Schlacht an der Roten Felswand bekannt, war eine entscheidende Schlacht im Anbruch der Zeit der Drei Reiche in China. The Battle of Red Cliffs: The History and Legacy of the Decisive Battle Fought Near the Start of Ancient China's Three Kingdoms Period (English Edition) eBook.
The Battle of Red Cliffs- Laura Harrell hat diesen Pin entdeckt. Entdecke (und sammle) deine eigenen Pins bei Pinterest. Dieses Spiel ist nur auf Englisch erhältlich. Für die Anleitung braucht man gute Englischkenntnisse, das Spiel ist fast komplett textlos. Die Schlacht am Roten. The Battle of Red Cliffs: The History and Legacy of the Decisive Battle Fought Near the Start of Ancient China's Three Kingdoms Period | Charles River Editors.
When Was The Battle Of The Red Cliffs Latest Articles VideoBATTLE OF THE RED CLIFFS - Historical Battle - Total War: Three Kingdoms
Tropical diseases, to which the southerners were largely immune, were also rampant in Cao Cao's camps. Although numerous, Cao Cao's men were already exhausted by the unfamiliar environment and the extended southern campaign, as Zhuge Liang observed: "Even a powerful arrow at the end of its flight cannot penetrate a silk cloth" Military Documents A key advisor, Jia Xu , had recommended after the surrender of Liu Cong that the overtaxed armies be given time to rest and replenish before engaging the armies of Sun Quan and Liu Bei, but Cao Cao disregarded the advice Eikenberry Cao Cao's own thoughts regarding his failure at Red Cliffs suggest that he held his own actions and misfortunes responsible for the defeat, rather than the strategies utilised by his enemy during the battle: " It is out of all reason for Zhou Yu to take the credit for himself.
By the end of , the post Cao Cao had established at Jiangling fell to Zhou Yu. Liu Bei gained territory by taking over the four commanderies Wuling, Changsha, Lingling and Guiyang south of the Yangtze River.
Sun Quan's troops had suffered far greater casualties than Liu Bei's in the extended conflict against Cao Ren following the Battle of Red Cliffs and the death of Zhou Yu in resulted in a drastic weakening of Sun Quan's strength in Jing Province de Crespigny —92, Liu Bei also occupied Jing Province that Cao Cao had recently lost—a strategic and naturally fortified area on the Yangtze River that Sun Quan claimed for himself.
The control of Jing Province provided Liu Bei with virtually unlimited access to the passage into Yi Province and important waterways into Wu southeastern China and dominion of the southern Yangtze River.
Never again would Cao Cao command so large a fleet as he had at Jiangling, nor would a similar opportunity to destroy his southern rivals present itself again de Crespigny The Battle of Red Cliffs and the capture of Jing Province by Liu Bei confirmed the separation of southern China from the northern heartland of the Yellow River valley and foreshadowed a north-south axis of hostility that would continue for centuries de Crespigny The precise location of the Red Cliffs battlefield has long been the subject of both popular and academic debates, but has never been conclusively established.
There are clear grounds for rejecting at least some of these proposals, but four alternative locations are still advocated.
According to Zhang , many of the current debates stem from the fact that the course and length of the Yangtze River between Wuli and Wuhan has changed since the Sui and Tang dynasties Zhang The modern-day debate is also complicated by the fact that the names of some of the key locations have changed over the following centuries.
For example, although modern Huarong city is located in Hunan, south of the Yangtze, in the 3rd century the city of that name was due east of Jiangling, considerably north of the Yangtze Zhang ; de Crespigny 78n.
Historical records state that Cao Cao's forces retreated north across the Yangtze after the initial engagement at Red Cliffs, unequivocally placing the battle site on the south bank of the Yangtze.
For this reason, a number of sites on the north bank have been discounted by historians and geographers. Historical accounts also establish east and west boundaries for a stretch of the Yangtze which encompasses all possible sites for the battlefield.
The allied forces travelled upstream from either Fankou or Xiakou. Since the Yangtze flows roughly eastward towards the ocean with northeast and southeast meanders , Red Cliffs must at least be west of Fankou, which is farther downstream.
The westernmost boundary is also clear, since Cao Cao's eastern advance from Jiangling included passing Baqiu present-day Yueyang , Hunan on the shore of Dongting Lake.
The battle must also have been downstream northeast of that location de Crespigny —57; Zhang Support for this conjecture arises largely due to the famous 11th-century poem " First Rhapsody on the Red Cliffs ", which equates the Huangzhou Hill with the battlefield location.
Excluding tone marks , the pinyin romanization of this cliff's name is "Chibi", the same as the pinyin for Red Cliffs. This site is also on the north bank of the Yangtze, and is directly across from Fankou rather than upstream from it Zhang Moreover, if the allied Sun-Liu forces left from Xiakou rather than Fankou, as the oldest historical sources suggest,  then the hill in Huangzhou would have been downstream from the point of departure, a possibility which cannot be reconciled with historical sources.
Puqi, now named Chibi City, is perhaps the most widely accepted candidate. It is directly across the Yangtze from Wulin. This argument was first proposed in the early Tang dynasty Zhang There are also characters engraved in the cliffs see image at the top of this page suggesting that this is the site of the battle.
The origin of the engraving can be dated to between the Tang and Song dynasties, making it at least 1, years old Zhang , This would place the battlefield downstream from Puqi Chibi City , a view that is supported by scholars of Chinese history such as Rafe de Crespigny , Wang Li and Zhu Dongrun , following the Qing dynasty historical document Shui Jing Zhu de Crespigny Another candidate is Wuhan , which straddles the Yangtze at the confluence of the Yangtze and Han rivers.
It is east of both Wulin and Chibi City across the river and Jiayu. This metropolis was incorporated by joining three cities.
There is a local belief in Wuhan that the battle was fought at the junction of the rivers, southwest of the former Wuchang city, which is now part of Wuhan de Crespigny n Zhang , asserts that the Chibi battlefield was one of a set of hills in Wuchang that were levelled in the s so that their stone could be used as raw material.
The romantic tradition that originated with the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms differs from historical accounts in many details.
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The film was directed by John Woo, and stars Tony Leung, Takeshi Kaneshiro, Zhang Fengyi, Chang Chen, Hu Jun, Lin Chi-ling and Zhao Wei.
It is Woo's first major film since 's Paycheck  and his first Chinese-language feature since 's Hard Boiled ,  also starring Leung.
In China and much of Asia, Red Cliff was released in two parts, totaling over four hours in length minutes.
The first part minutes premiered in Beijing on 2 July and the second minutes was released in China on 7 January Outside Asia, a cut-down single minute version was released in However, the full-length two-part version was released on DVD and Blu-ray in the United Kingdom on 5 October ,  and in the United States and Canada on 23 March Woo decided to alter the story using modern feelings and his own feelings for a more worldly acceptance.
According to Woo, historical accuracy was less important than how the audience felt about the battle. In the summer of AD, towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty , the Chancellor , Cao Cao , leads the imperial army on a campaign to eliminate the southern warlords Sun Quan and Liu Bei , whom he denounces as "rebels".
Emperor Xian reluctantly approves the campaign. Cao Cao's mighty army swiftly conquers Jing Province. The Battle of Changban is ignited when Cao Cao's cavalry starts attacking civilians on an exodus led by Liu Bei.
During the battle, Liu Bei's followers, including his sworn brothers Guan Yu and Zhang Fei , give an excellent display of their combat skills by holding off the enemy while buying time for the civilians to retreat.
The warrior Zhao Yun fights bravely to rescue Liu Bei's entrapped family but only succeeds in rescuing Liu's infant son.
Following the battle, Liu Bei's advisor, Zhuge Liang , goes on a diplomatic mission to Jiangdong to form an alliance between his lord and Sun Quan against Cao Cao.
Sun Quan was initially in the midst of a dilemma of whether to surrender or fight back, but his decision to resist Cao Cao hardens after Zhuge Liang's clever persuasion and a subsequent tiger hunt with his viceroy Zhou Yu and his sister Sun Shangxiang.
Meanwhile, Cai Mao and Zhang Yun , two naval commanders from Jing Province, pledge allegiance to Cao Cao, who puts them in command of his navy.
After the hasty formation of the Sun—Liu alliance, the forces of Liu Bei and Sun Quan call for a meeting to formulate a plan to counter Cao Cao's army, which is rapidly advancing towards their base at Red Cliff from both land and water.
The battle begins with Sun Shangxiang leading some riders to lure Cao Cao's vanguard force into the allies' Bagua Formation. The vanguard force is defeated by the allies but Cao Cao shows no disappointment and proceeds to lead his main army to the riverbank directly opposite Red Cliff, where they make camp.
While the allies throw a banquet to celebrate their victory, Zhuge Liang conceives a plan to send Sun Shangxiang on an espionage mission to Cao Cao's camp.
They maintain contact by sending messages via a pigeon. The film ends with Zhou Yu lighting his miniaturised battleships on a map based on the battle formation.
Sun Shangxiang has infiltrated Cao Cao's camp and is secretly noting its details and sending them via a pigeon to Zhuge Liang. Meanwhile, Cao Cao's army is seized with a plague of typhoid fever that kills a number of his troops.
Cao Cao orders the corpses to be sent on floating rafts to the allies' camp, in the hope of spreading the plague to his enemies.
The allied army's morale is affected when some unsuspecting soldiers let the plague in. Eventually, a disheartened Liu Bei leaves with his forces while Zhuge Liang stays behind to assist Sun Quan.
Cao Cao is overjoyed when he hears that the alliance has collapsed. At the same time, Cai Mao and Zhang Yun propose a new tactic of interlocking the battleships with iron beams to minimise rocking when sailing on the river and reduce the chances of the troops falling seasick.
Zhou Yu and Zhuge Liang make plans to eliminate Cai Mao and Zhang Yun and produce , arrows respectively. They agreed that whoever fails to complete his mission shall be executed under military law.
Zhuge Liang's strategy of letting the enemy shoot 20 boats covered in straw brings in over , arrows from the enemy and makes Cao Cao doubt the loyalty of Cai Mao and Zhang Yun.
On the other hand, Cao Cao sends Jiang Gan to persuade Zhou Yu to surrender, but Zhou tricks Jiang Gan into believing that Cai Mao and Zhang Yun are planning to assassinate Cao Cao.
Both Zhuge Liang and Zhou Yu's respective plans complement each other when Cao Cao is convinced, despite having earlier doubts about Jiang Gan's report, that Cai Mao and Zhang Yun were indeed planning to assassinate him by deliberately "donating" arrows to the enemy.
Cai Mao and Zhang Yun are executed only for Cao Cao to realize his folly afterwards. Sun Shangxiang returns to base from Cao Cao's camp with a map of the enemy formation.
Zhou Yu and Zhuge Liang decide to attack Cao Cao's navy with fire after predicting that a special climatic condition will soon cause the winds to blow from the southeast — a direction to their advantage.
Before the battle, Sun Quan's forces feast on rice dumplings to celebrate the Winter Solstice. Cao Cao seeing defeat before him tried to retreat his army down a path called the Huarong Road.
Unfortunately Mother Nature was not on his side as heavy rain fall made the path into a quagmire and many men either drowned in the watery mud or were trampled to death by their own horses.
In light of this Cao Cao retreated to his home. Although it is known the battle of Red Cliffs occurred on the banks of the Yangtze River, the actual place of battle has been a source of debate for some 1, years as no one has found physical evidence to confirm the location.
Currently there are three definite possibilities where the battle of Red Cliffs could have taken place; these are at Huangzhou, Wuchang or Chibi City, although some scholars point to a fourth unidentified location.
Why was there so much explosive in this film battle of Red Cliff AD when gun powder was not invented until the 9th century?The combined Sun-Liu force sailed upstream from either Xiakou or Fankou to Red Cliffs, where they encountered Cao Cao's vanguard force. Battle of Red Cliffs Part of the wars at the end of the Han Dynasty Engravings on a cliff-side mark one widely accepted site of Chibi, near present-day Chibi City Air Hockey Online, Hubei. The uncharacteristically poor preparation and miscalculations displayed by Cao Cao during this campaign may have been partly due to the recent death of his strategist and advisor Guo Jia. Upon his return inhe was appointed Keno Lotto Dea position that granted him absolute authority over the entire River Cree Twin Rinks government de Crespigny6n.