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The nucleus of the pirate force was a group of English ex-privateers, all of whom would soon be enshrined in infamy: Henry Jennings , Charles Vane , Samuel Bellamy , and Edward England.
The attack was successful, but contrary to their expectations, the governor of Jamaica refused to allow Jennings and their cohorts to spend their loot on his island.
With Kingston and the declining Port Royal closed to them, Jennings and his comrades founded a new pirate base at Nassau , on the island of New Providence in the Bahamas, which had been abandoned during the war.
Until the arrival of governor Woodes Rogers three years later, Nassau would be home for these pirates and their many recruits.
Shipping traffic between Africa, the Caribbean, and Europe began to soar in the 18th century, a model that was known as triangular trade , and was a rich target for piracy.
Trade ships sailed from Europe to the African coast, trading manufactured goods and weapons in exchange for slaves.
The traders would then sail to the Caribbean to sell the slaves, and return to Europe with goods such as sugar, tobacco and cocoa.
Another triangular trade saw ships carry raw materials, preserved cod, and rum to Europe, where a portion of the cargo would be sold for manufactured goods, which along with the remainder of the original load were transported to the Caribbean, where they were exchanged for sugar and molasses, which with some manufactured articles were borne to New England.
Ships in the triangular trade made money at each stop. As part of the peace settlement of the War of the Spanish succession , Britain obtained the asiento , a Spanish government contract, to supply slaves to Spain's new world colonies, providing British traders and smugglers more access to the traditionally closed Spanish markets in America.
This arrangement also contributed heavily to the spread of piracy across the western Atlantic at this time. Shipping to the colonies boomed simultaneously with the flood of skilled mariners after the war.
Merchant shippers used the surplus of sailors' labor to drive wages down, cutting corners to maximize their profits, and creating unsavory conditions aboard their vessels.
Merchant sailors suffered from mortality rates as high or higher than the slaves being transported Rediker, Living conditions were so poor that many sailors began to prefer a freer existence as a pirate.
The increased volume of shipping traffic also could sustain a large body of brigands preying upon it. Most of these pirates were eventually hunted down by the Royal Navy and killed or captured; several battles were fought between the brigands and the colonial powers on both land and sea.
Piracy in the Caribbean declined for the next several decades after , but by the s many pirates roamed the waters though they were not as bold or successful as their predecessors.
The most successful pirates of the era were Jean Lafitte and Roberto Cofresi. Lafitte is considered by many to be the last buccaneer due to his army of pirates and fleet of pirate ships which held bases in and around the Gulf of Mexico.
Lafitte and his men participated in the War of battle of New Orleans. Cofresi's base was in Mona Island , Puerto Rico, from where he disrupted the commerce throughout the region.
He became the last major target of the international anti-piracy operations. The elimination of piracy from European waters expanded to the Caribbean in the 18th century, West Africa and North America by the s and by the s even the Indian Ocean was a difficult location for pirates to operate.
England began to strongly turn against piracy at the turn of the 18th century, as it was increasingly damaging to the country's economic and commercial prospects in the region.
The Piracy Act of for the "more effectual suppression of Piracy"  made it easier to capture, try and convict pirates by lawfully enabling acts of piracy to be "examined, inquired of, tried, heard and determined, and adjudged in any place at sea, or upon the land, in any of his Majesty's islands, plantations, colonies, dominions, forts, or factories.
Commissioners of these vice-admiralty courts were also vested with "full power and authority" to issue warrants, summon the necessary witnesses, and "to do all thing necessary for the hearing and final determination of any case of piracy, robbery, or felony.
Piracy saw a brief resurgence between the end of the War of the Spanish Succession in and around , as many unemployed seafarers took to piracy as a way to make ends meet when a surplus of sailors after the war led to a decline in wages and working conditions.
At the same time, one of the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht that ended the war gave to Great Britain's Royal African Company and other British slavers a thirty-year asiento, or contract, to furnish African slaves to the Spanish colonies, providing British merchants and smugglers potential inroads into the traditionally closed Spanish markets in America and leading to an economic revival for the whole region.
This revived Caribbean trade provided rich new pickings for a wave of piracy. Also contributing to the increase of Caribbean piracy at this time was Spain's breakup of the English logwood settlement at Campeche and the attractions of a freshly sunken silver fleet off the southern Bahamas in Fears over the rising levels of crime and piracy, political discontent, concern over crowd behaviour at public punishments, and an increased determination by parliament to suppress piracy, resulted in the Piracy Act of and of These established a seven-year penal transportation to North America as a possible punishment for those convicted of lesser felonies, or as a possible sentence that capital punishment might be commuted to by royal pardon.
After , piracy in the classic sense became extremely rare as increasingly effective anti-piracy measures were taken by the Royal Navy making it impossible for any pirate to pursue an effective career for long.
By , the British Royal Navy had approximately vessels and by ; a big increase from the two vessels England had possessed in Many pirates did not surrender and were killed at the point of capture; notorious pirate Edward Teach, or "Blackbeard", was hunted down by Lieutenant Robert Maynard at Ocracoke Inlet off the coast of North Carolina on November 22, and killed.
His flagship was a captured French slave ship known originally as "La Concorde", he renamed the frigate Queen Anne's Revenge.
Roberts' death shocked the pirate world, as well as the Royal Navy. The local merchants and civilians had thought him invincible, and some considered him a hero.
Also crucial to the end of this era of piracy was the loss of the pirates' last Caribbean safe haven at Nassau. In the early 19th century, piracy along the East and Gulf Coasts of North America as well as in the Caribbean increased again.
Jean Lafitte was just one of hundreds of pirates operating in American and Caribbean waters between the years of and After fleeing for hours, he was ambushed and captured inland.
The United States landed shore parties on several islands in the Caribbean in pursuit of pirates; Cuba was a major haven. By the s piracy had died out again, and the navies of the region focused on the slave trade.
About the time of the Mexican—American War in , the United States Navy had grown strong and numerous enough to eliminate the pirate threat in the West Indies.
By the s, ships had begun to convert to steam propulsion, so the Age of Sail and the classical idea of pirates in the Caribbean ended.
Privateering, similar to piracy, continued as an asset in war for a few more decades and proved to be of some importance during the naval campaigns of the American Civil War.
Privateering would remain a tool of European states until the midth century's Declaration of Paris. But letters of marque were given out much more sparingly by governments and were terminated as soon as conflicts ended.
The idea of "no peace beyond the Line" was a relic that had no meaning by the more settled late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Due to the strategic situation of this Spanish archipelago as a crossroads of maritime routes and commercial bridge between Europe , Africa and America ,  this was one of the places on the planet with the greatest pirate presence.
In the Canary Islands , the following stand out: the attacks and continuous looting of Berber , English , French and Dutch corsairs sometimes successful and often a failure;  and on the other hand, the presence of pirates and corsairs from this archipelago, who made their incursions into the Caribbean.
Piracy on the east coast of North America first became common in the early seventeenth century, as English privateers discharged after the end of the Anglo-Spanish War turned to piracy.
River piracy , in late 18th-midth century America, was primarily concentrated along the Ohio River and Mississippi River valleys. In , at Tower Rock , the U.
Army dragoons , possibly, from the frontier army post up river at Fort Kaskaskia , on the Illinois side opposite St.
Louis, raided and drove out the river pirates. Stack Island was also associated with river pirates and counterfeiters in the late s.
In , the last major river pirate activity took place, on the Upper Mississippi River, and river piracy in this area came to an abrupt end, when a group of flatboatmen raided the island, wiping out the river pirates.
From to , Cave-In-Rock was the principal outlaw lair and headquarters of river pirate activity in the Ohio River region, from which Samuel Mason led a gang of river pirates on the Ohio River.
River piracy continued on the lower Mississippi River, from the early s to the mids, declining as a result of direct military action and local law enforcement and regulator-vigilante groups that uprooted and swept out pockets of outlaw resistance.
Pirates had a system of hierarchy on board their ships determining how captured money was distributed.
However, pirates were more egalitarian than any other area of employment at the time. In fact, pirate quartermasters were a counterbalance to the captain and had the power to veto his orders.
The majority of plunder was in the form of cargo and ship's equipment, with medicines the most highly prized. Jewels were common plunder but not popular, as they were hard to sell, and pirates, unlike the public of today, had little concept of their value.
There is one case recorded where a pirate was given a large diamond worth a great deal more than the value of the handful of small diamonds given to his crewmates as a share.
He felt cheated and had it broken up to match what they received. Spanish pieces of eight minted in Mexico or Seville were the standard trade currency in the American colonies.
However, every colony still used the monetary units of pounds, shillings, and pence for bookkeeping while Spanish, German, French, and Portuguese money were all standard mediums of exchange as British law prohibited the export of British silver coinage.
Until the exchange rates were standardised in the late 18th century each colony legislated its own different exchange rates.
In England, 1 piece of eight was worth 4s 3d while it was worth 8s in New York, 7s 6d in Pennsylvania and 6s 8d in Virginia. As such, the value of pirate plunder could vary considerably, depending on who recorded it and where.
Ordinary seamen received a part of the plunder at the captain's discretion but usually a single share. It is known there were actions with multiple ships captured where a single share was worth almost double this.
By contrast, an ordinary seamen in the Royal Navy received 19s per month to be paid in a lump sum at the end of a tour of duty, which was around half the rate paid in the Merchant Navy.
However, corrupt officers would often "tax" their crews' wage to supplement their own, and the Royal Navy of the day was infamous for its reluctance to pay.
From this wage, 6d per month was deducted for the maintenance of Greenwich Hospital , with similar amounts deducted for the Chatham Chest , the chaplain and surgeon.
Six months' pay was withheld to discourage desertion. That this was insufficient incentive is revealed in a report on proposed changes to the RN Admiral Nelson wrote in ; he noted that since more than 42, sailors had deserted.
Roughly half of all RN crews were pressganged and these not only received lower wages than volunteers but were shackled while the vessel was docked and were never permitted to go ashore until released from service.
Although the Royal Navy suffered from many morale issues, it answered the question of prize money via the 'Cruizers and Convoys' Act of which handed over the share previously gained by the Crown to the captors of the ship.
Technically it was still possible for the Crown to get the money or a portion of it but this rarely happened.
The process of condemnation of a captured vessel and its cargo and men was given to the High Court of the Admiralty and this was the process which remained in force with minor changes throughout the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
Even the flag officer's share was not quite straightforward; he would only get the full one-eighth if he had no junior flag officer beneath him.
If this was the case then he would get a third share. If he had more than one then he would take one half while the rest was shared out equally.
There was a great deal of money to be made in this way. The record breaker was the capture of the Spanish frigate Hermione , which was carrying treasure in All through the wars there are examples of this kind of luck falling on captains.
Another famous 'capture' was that of the Spanish frigates Thetis and Santa Brigada , which were loaded with gold specie. It should also be noted that it was usually only the frigates which took prizes; the ships of the line were far too ponderous to be able to chase and capture the smaller ships which generally carried treasure.
Nelson always bemoaned that he had done badly out of prize money and even as a flag officer received little. This was not that he had a bad command of captains but rather that British mastery of the seas was so complete that few enemy ships dared to sail.
Even though pirates raided many ships, few, if any, buried their treasure. Often, the "treasure" that was stolen was food, water, alcohol, weapons, or clothing.
Other things they stole were household items like bits of soap and gear like rope and anchors, or sometimes they would keep the ship they captured either to sell off or keep because it was better than their ship.
Such items were likely to be needed immediately, rather than saved for future trade. For this reason, there was no need for the pirates to bury these goods.
Pirates tended to kill few people aboard the ships they captured; usually they would kill no one if the ship surrendered, because if it became known that pirates took no prisoners, their victims would fight to the last breath and make victory both very difficult and costly in lives.
In contrast, ships would quickly surrender if they knew they would be spared. In one well-documented case heavily armed soldiers on a ship attacked by Thomas Tew surrendered after a brief battle with none of Tew's man crew being injured.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, once pirates were caught, justice was meted out in a summary fashion, and many ended their lives by "dancing the hempen jig", a euphemism for hanging.
Public execution was a form of entertainment at the time, and people came out to watch them as they would to a sporting event today. Newspapers reported details such as condemned men's last words, the prayers said by the priests, and descriptions of their final moments in the gallows.
In the cases of more famous prisoners, usually captains, their punishments extended beyond death. Their bodies were enclosed in iron cages gibbet for which they were measured before their execution and left to swing in the air until the flesh rotted off them- a process that could take as long as two years.
While piracy was predominantly a male occupation throughout history, a minority of pirates were female. Additionally, women were often regarded as bad luck among pirates.
It was feared that the male members of the crew would argue and fight over the women. On many ships, women as well as young boys were prohibited by the ship's contract , which all crew members were required to sign.
Because of the resistance to allowing women on board, many female pirates did not identify themselves as such.
Anne Bonny, for example, dressed and acted as a man while on Captain Calico Jack's ship. Unlike traditional Western societies of the time, many Caribbean pirate crews of European descent operated as limited democracies.
Pirate communities were some of the first to instate a system of checks and balances similar to the one used by the present-day United States and many other countries.
The first record of such a government aboard a pirate sloop dates to the 17th century. To date, the following identifiable pirate shipwrecks have been discovered:.
A privateer or corsair used similar methods to a pirate, but acted under orders of the state while in possession of a commission or letter of marque and reprisal from a government or monarch authorizing the capture of merchant ships belonging to an enemy nation.
For example, the United States Constitution of specifically authorized Congress to issue letters of marque and reprisal. The letter of marque and reprisal was recognized by international convention and meant that a privateer could not technically be charged with piracy while attacking the targets named in his commission.
This nicety of law did not always save the individuals concerned, however, since whether one was considered a pirate or a legally operating privateer often depended on whose custody the individual found himself in—that of the country that had issued the commission, or that of the object of attack.
Spanish authorities were known to execute foreign privateers with their letters of marque hung around their necks to emphasize Spain's rejection of such defenses.
Furthermore, many privateers exceeded the bounds of their letters of marque by attacking nations with which their sovereign was at peace Thomas Tew and William Kidd are notable alleged examples , and thus made themselves liable to conviction for piracy.
However, a letter of marque did provide some cover for such pirates, as plunder seized from neutral or friendly shipping could be passed off later as taken from enemy merchants.
The famous Barbary Corsairs of the Mediterranean, authorized by the Ottoman Empire, were privateers, as were the Maltese Corsairs, who were authorized by the Knights of St.
John , and the Dunkirkers in the service of the Spanish Empire. In the years — alone, the Dunkirk privateers captured 1, ships, and sank another His patron was Queen Elizabeth I, and their relationship ultimately proved to be quite profitable for England.
Privateers constituted a large proportion of the total military force at sea during the 17th and 18th centuries. During the Nine Years War , the French adopted a policy of strongly encouraging privateers French corsairs , including the famous Jean Bart , to attack English and Dutch shipping.
England lost roughly 4, merchant ships during the war. During King George's War , approximately 36, Americans served aboard privateers at one time or another.
Privateering lost international sanction under the Declaration of Paris in A wartime activity similar to piracy involves disguised warships called commerce raiders or merchant raiders , which attack enemy shipping commerce, approaching by stealth and then opening fire.
Commerce raiders operated successfully during the American Revolution. Since commissioned naval vessels were openly used, these commerce raiders should not be considered even privateers, much less pirates—although the opposing combatants were vocal in denouncing them as such.
In the Gulf of Guinea, maritime piracy has also led to pressure on offshore oil and gas production, providing security for offshore installations and supply vessels is often paid for by oil companies rather than the respective governments.
In , Brazil also created an anti-piracy unit on the Amazon River. River piracy happens in Europe, with vessels suffering from pirate attacks on the Serbian and Romanian stretches of the international Danube river , i.
Modern pirates favor small boats and taking advantage of the small number of crew members on modern cargo vessels. Modern pirates can be successful because a large amount of international commerce occurs via shipping.
Major shipping routes take cargo ships through narrow bodies of water such as the Gulf of Aden and the Strait of Malacca making them vulnerable to be overtaken and boarded by small motorboats.
As usage increases, many of these ships have to lower cruising speeds to allow for navigation and traffic control, making them prime targets for piracy.
Also, pirates often operate in regions of poor developing or struggling countries with small or nonexistent navies and large trade routes.
Pirates sometimes evade capture by sailing into waters controlled by their pursuer's enemies. With the end of the Cold War , navies have decreased in size and patrol less frequently, while trade has increased, making organized piracy far easier.
Modern pirates are sometimes linked with organized-crime syndicates, but often are small individual groups. Their records indicate hostage-taking overwhelmingly dominates the types of violence against seafarers.
For example, in , there were attacks, 77 crew members were kidnapped and taken hostage but only 15 of the pirate attacks resulted in murder.
There was a 35 percent increase on reported attacks involving guns. Crew members that were injured numbered 64 compared to just 17 in The number of attacks from January to September had surpassed the previous year's total due to the increased pirate attacks in the Gulf of Aden and off Somalia.
Between January and September the number of attacks rose to from The pirates boarded the vessels in cases and hijacked 34 of them so far in Gun use in pirate attacks has gone up to cases from 76 last year.
Rather than cargo, modern pirates have targeted the personal belongings of the crew and the contents of the ship's safe, which potentially contains large amounts of cash needed for payroll and port fees.
In other cases, the pirates force the crew off the ship and then sail it to a port to be repainted and given a new identity through false papers purchased from corrupt or complicit officials.
Modern piracy can also take place in conditions of political unrest. For example, following the U. Further, following the disintegration of the government of Somalia, warlords in the region have attacked ships delivering UN food aid.
The attack against the German-built cruise ship the Seabourn Spirit offshore of Somalia in November is an example of the sophisticated pirates mariners face.
The attackers were armed with automatic firearms and an RPG. Backers were now reportedly reluctant to finance pirate expeditions due to the low rate of success, and pirates were no longer able to reimburse their creditors.
Many nations forbid ships to enter their territorial waters or ports if the crew of the ships are armed, in an effort to restrict possible piracy.
For the United States, piracy is one of the offenses against which Congress is delegated power to enact penal legislation by the Constitution of the United States , along with treason and offenses against the law of nations.
In modern times, ships and airplanes are hijacked for political reasons as well. The perpetrators of these acts could be described as pirates for instance, the French term for plane hijacker is pirate de l'air , literally air pirate , but in English are usually termed hijackers.
An example is the hijacking of the Italian civilian passenger ship Achille Lauro by the Palestinian Liberation Organization in , which is regarded as an act of piracy.
A book entitled International Legal Dimension of Terrorism called the attackers "terrorists". Modern pirates also use a great deal of technology.
It has been reported that crimes of piracy have involved the use of mobile phones , satellite phones , GPS , machetes , AK74 rifles, Sonar systems, modern speedboats , shotguns , pistols , mounted machine guns , and even RPGs and grenade launchers.
The Americas and Africa have been identified by the International Chamber of Commerce as the most vulnerable to piracy as a result of less-wealthy governments in the regions being unable to adequately combat piracy.
Under a principle of international law known as the "universality principle", a government may "exercise jurisdiction over conduct outside its territory if that conduct is universally dangerous to states and their nationals.
The goal of maritime security operations is "actively to deter, disrupt and suppress piracy in order to protect global maritime security and secure freedom of navigation for the benefit of all nations",  and pirates are often detained, interrogated, disarmed, and released.
With millions of dollars at stake, pirates have little incentive to stop. In Finland, one case involved pirates who had been captured and whose boat was sunk.
As the pirates attacked a vessel of Singapore, not Finland, and are not themselves EU or Finnish citizens, they were not prosecuted.
A further complication in many cases, including this one, is that many countries do not allow extradition of people to jurisdictions where they may be sentenced to death or torture.
The Dutch are using a 17th-century law against sea robbery to prosecute. Prosecutors have a hard time assembling witnesses and finding translators, and countries are reluctant to imprison pirates because the countries would be saddled with the pirates upon their release.
George Mason University professor Peter Leeson has suggested that the international community appropriate Somali territorial waters and sell them, together with the international portion of the Gulf of Aden, to a private company which would then provide security from piracy in exchange for charging tolls to world shipping through the Gulf.
The fourth volume of the handbook: Best Management Practices to Deter Piracy off the Coast of Somalia and in the Arabian Sea Area known as BMP4  is the current authoritative guide for merchant ships on self-defense against pirates.
BMP4 contains a chapter entitled "Self-Protective Measures" which lays out a list of steps a merchant vessel can take on its own to make itself less of a target to pirates and make it better able to repel an attack if one occurs.
This list includes rigging the deck of the ship with razor wire , rigging fire-hoses to spray sea-water over the side of the ship to hinder boardings , having a distinctive pirate alarm, hardening the bridge against gunfire and creating a " citadel " where the crew can retreat in the event pirates get on board.
Other unofficial self-defense measures that can be found on merchant vessels include the setting up of mannequins posing as armed guards or firing flares at the pirates.
Though it varies by country, generally peacetime law in the 20th and 21st centuries has not allowed merchant vessels to carry weapons.
As a response to the rise in modern piracy, however, the U. The US Coastguard leaves it to ship owners' discretion to determine if those guards will be armed.
Seychelles has become a central location for international anti-piracy operations, hosting the Anti-Piracy Operation Center for the Indian Ocean.
With safety trials complete in the late s, laser dazzlers have been developed for defensive purposes on super-yachts. In February , Italian Marines based on the tanker Enrica Lexie allegedly fired on an Indian fishing trawler off Kerala , killing two of her eleven crew.
The Marines allegedly mistook the fishing vessel as a pirate vessel. The incident sparked a diplomatic row between India and Italy.
Enrica Lexie was ordered into Kochi where her crew were questioned by officers of the Indian Police. However, despite VPD deployment being controversial because of these incidents, according to the Associated Press ,  during a United Nations Security Council conference about piracy "U.
Ambassador Susan Rice told the council that no ship carrying armed guards has been successfully attacked by pirates" and "French Ambassador Gerard Araud stressed that private guards do not have the deterrent effect that government-posted marine and sailors and naval patrols have in warding off attacks".
First and foremost, the best protection against pirates is simply to avoid encountering them. This can be accomplished by using tools such as radar ,  or by using specialised systems that use shorter wavelengths as small boats are not always picked up by radar.
An example of a specialised system is WatchStander. In addition, while the non-wartime 20th century tradition has been for merchant vessels not to be armed, the U.
Government has recently changed the rules so that it is now "best practice" for vessels to embark a team of armed private security guards.
Other measures vessels can take to protect themselves against piracy are air-pressurised boat stopping systems which can fire a variety of vessel-disabling projectiles,  implementing a high freewall  and vessel boarding protection systems e.
Any unexpected change in this information can attract attention. Previously this data could only be picked up if there was a nearby ship, thus rendering single ships vulnerable.
However, special satellites have been launched recently that are now able to detect and retransmit this data.
Large ships cannot therefore be hijacked without being detected. This can act as a deterrent to attempts to either hijack the entire ship or steal large portions of cargo with another ship since an escort can be sent more quickly than might otherwise have been the case.
In an emergency warships can be called upon. In some areas such as near Somalia, patrolling naval vessels from different nations are available to intercept vessels attacking merchant vessels.
For patrolling dangerous coastal waters, or keeping cost down, robotic or remote-controlled USVs are also sometimes used. Section 2 of the Piracy Act creates a statutory offence of aggravated piracy.
See also the Piracy Act In the British Foreign Office advised the Royal Navy not to detain pirates of certain nationalities as they might be able to claim asylum in Britain under British human rights legislation , if their national laws included execution, or mutilation as a judicial punishment for crimes committed as pirates.
These provisions replace the Schedule to the Tokyo Convention Act See section 5 of the Aviation Security Act The book " Archbold " said that in a case that does not fall within section 2 of the Piracy Act , the penalty appears to be determined by the Offences at Sea Act , which provides that offences committed at sea are liable to the same penalty as if they had been committed upon the shore.
William Hawkins said that under common law , piracy by a subject was esteemed to be petty treason. The Treason Act provided that this was not petty treason.
In English admiralty law , piracy was classified as petty treason during the medieval period, and offenders were accordingly liable to be hanged, drawn and quartered on conviction.
In either case, piracy cases were cognizable in the courts of the Lord High Admiral. English judges in admiralty courts and vice admiralty courts emphasized that "neither Faith nor Oath is to be kept" with pirates; i.
Pirates were legally subject to summary execution by their captors if captured in battle. In practice, instances of summary justice and annulment of oaths and contracts involving pirates do not appear to have been common.
In the United States, criminal prosecution of piracy is authorized in the U. Constitution, Art. I Sec. Whoever, on the high seas, commits the crime of piracy as defined by the law of nations, and is afterwards brought into or found in the United States, shall be imprisoned for life.
Smith ,  a U. District Court ruled in in the case of United States v. Said that the definition of piracy under section is confined to "robbery at sea.
The U. District Court for the E. United States v. Said, F. See also United States v. Dire, F. Said, 3 F. Court, ED Virginia During the 18th century, the British and the Dutch controlled opposite sides of the Straits of Malacca.
The British and the Dutch drew a line separating the Straits into two halves. The agreement was that each party would be responsible for combating piracy in their respective half.
First Barbary War. Second Barbary War. Cape Gata Cape Palos. Main article: First Barbary War. Main article: Second Barbary War. See also: Original six frigates of the United States Navy.
About the Barbary Wars". Retrieved 9 July VI, p. Department of State. Retrieved Department of Defense.
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